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The spate of bombings has rocked Indonesia, with the Islamic State group claiming the church attacks and raising fears about its influence in Southeast Asia as its dreams of a Middle Eastern caliphate fizzle.
Indonesia has long struggled with Islamist militancy, including the 2002 Bali bombings that killed over 200 people — mostly foreign tourists — in the country’s worst-ever terror attack.
Security forces have arrested hundreds of militants during a sustained crackdown that smashed some networks, and most recent attacks have been low-level and targeted domestic security forces.
But that changed Sunday as a family of six — including two young girls — staged suicide bombings of churches during morning services in the country’s second biggest city Surabaya, killing 14.
On Monday, members of another family attacked the police station in Surabaya, wounding 10.
“There were five people on two motorbikes. One of them was a little kid,” national police chief Tito Karnavian said. “This is one family.”
An eight-year-old girl from the family survived the attack and was taken to hospital, while her mother, father and two brothers died in the blast, he said.
The church attacks were claimed by the Islamic State group.
The father of the church suicide bombers was a local leader in extremist network Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD) which supports IS.
“It ordered and gave instructions for its cells to make a move,” Karnavian said of the church attacks.
He added that the attacks may have also been motivated by the arrest of JAD leadership, including jailed radical Aman Abdurrahman, and were linked to a deadly prison riot staged by Islamist prisoners at a high-security jail near Jakarta last week.
Abdurrahman has been connected to several deadly incidents, including a 2016 gun and suicide attack in the capital Jakarta that left four attackers and four civilians dead.
Despite their apparent allegiance to IS, the church-bombing family were not returnees from Syria, police said Monday, correcting their earlier statements.
However, hundreds of Indonesians have flocked in recent years to fight alongside IS in its bid to carve out a caliphate ruled by strict Islamic law.
Its efforts have been fizzling quickly as it has lost most of the land it once occupied in Iraq and Syria.
On Sunday evening, just hours after the church bombings, a further three people in another family were killed and two wounded when another bomb exploded at an apartment complex about 30 kilometres (20 miles) from Surabaya.
Police said the father in the church bombings — Dita Oepriyanto — was a confidante of the man killed in the apartment, who police said had a bomb detonator in his hand when he was shot by authorities.
“The father was Dita’s close friend,” said Karnavian, the police chief.
“When we searched the flat we found pipe bombs, similar to pipe bombs we found near the churches.”
Indonesian police have foiled numerous terror plots, but the coordinated nature of Sunday’s church bombings and the subsequent blasts point to more sophisticated planning than in the past, analysts said.
“There is definitely a growing technical proficiency,” than in past attacks, said Zachary Abuza, professor and Southeast Asian security expert at the National War College in Washington.
“To pull off three near simultaneous bombings is hallmark of a group that is thinking.”
Abuza questioned the police suggestion that the attacks were ordered by the IS leadership abroad, but said the group would likely keep up its influence in Southeast Asia as it fades elsewhere.
“(They’re) going to continue to benefit from operating transnationally in Southeast Asia,” he added.